Work From Home
Telecommuting or Working From Home (WFH) is a work arrangement in which employees enjoy flexibility in working location and hours (within limits). In other words, the daily commute to a central place of work is replaced by telecommunication links. The motto is that 'work is something you do, not something you travel to'. A successful telecommuting programme requires a management style which is based on results and not on close scrutiny of individual employees. This is referred to as 'managing by objective' as opposed to 'managing by observation'. The term 'telecommuting' was coined by Jack Nilles and was first used in the United States.
The first formal tests of telecommuting were held in 1973 and 1974 with the telecommuters working at a satellite office of an insurance company, using dumb terminals connected to a downtown mainframe. In the 1980s, employees began to work (part-time) from so-called 'home offices' with a desktop PC supplied by their company. Today, the telecommuting staff (telecommuters) usually carries laptop PCs around which they can use both at the office and at home (and almost anywhere else). The telecommuting staff are kept together by the company network and other telecommunication channels.
Telecommuting is seen as a solution to traffic congestion (due to single-car commuting) and the resulting urban air pollution and petroleum use. Initial investments in the network infrastructure and hardware are balanced by an increased productivity and overall greater well-being of telecommuting staff (more quality family time, less travel-related stress), which makes the arrangement attractive to companies, especially those who face large office overhead and other costs related to the need for a big central office (such as the need for extensive parking facilities).