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Microscopes



A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye, or to bring it into sharp focus as to see fine details. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopy, and the term microscopic means minute or very small, not easily visible with the unaided eye. In other words, requiring a microscope to examine. The most common type of microscope—and the first to be invented—is the optical microscope. This is an optical instrument containing one or more lenses that produce an enlarged image of an object placed in the focal plane of the lense or lenses.

A simple microscope, as opposed to a standard compound microscope with multiple lenses, is a microscope that uses only one lens for magnification. Van Leeuwenhoek's microscopes consisted of a single, small, convex lens mounted on a plate with a mechanism to hold the material to be examined (the sample or specimen). This use of a single, convex lens to magnify objects for viewing is still found in the magnifying glass, the hand-lens, and the loupe.

In its simplest form, the compound microscope would have a single glass lens of short focal length for the objective, and another single glass lens for the eyepiece or ocular. Modern microscopes of this kind are usually more complex, with multiple lens components in both objective and eyepiece assemblies.These multi-component lenses are designed to reduce aberrations, particularly chromatic aberration and spherical aberration. In modern microscopes the mirror is replaced by a lamp unit providing stable, controllable fun, what is umination.



Arguing my opinion, for the microscope (certainly no with the form where I get to know today) there exist explicit clues for its use, already from the 5th and 4th century bc, if we take in mind the minting of season, at the same time with the testimonies from ancient texts, for the scientific knowledge of the time.

I mention enlargements of ancient currencies (granted to me for the help of my research by the monetary collection of Alpha bank) and extracts from translation of ancient text. These texts show us the knowledge on technologies that they were probably presented later, as the microscope, that while we believe it was discovered a lot of centuries afterwards, it is proved ,that the microscope had already been discovered and applied in the arts and the sciences from the 5th century bc.

«The assumption of shaping of idols in the reflectors and in all those that are reflected and are spoil it is difficult to be understood» (state Plato 46a)

«το δε περί την των κατόπτρων ειδωλοποιίαν και πάντα όσα ενφανή και λεία, κατιδειν ουδέν έτι χαλεπόν.»

This means that they have already conscience of transporting the picture with reflectors, from there and beyond with light concave reflector we have the enlargement or the diminution of the picture and this it is also the base of microscope.

The fact that they used this technique, testifies the below cells for which the archeologists do not have certain relative conclusions.

1) The artistically ancient currencies that were presented in various bands already from the 5th century, with their enlargement give us such details that it is impossible we even see with simple magnifying lens.

2) In the state of Plato (which is a scientific work of season) we also see the text below:
”This is continued until from both sides the wish and the love, the man and the woman, will be joined. And then as if gathering fruit from the trees, seed in the uterus as in cultivated and fecund field unseen, because of smallness and not formed, live beings ( herb atozoon) and after they separate them again, they will raise and grow them in there and later they will lead them to the light and they will complete thus the creation of living.”
(state Plato 91b)

«μέχριπερ αν εκατέρων η επιθυμία και ο έρως συναγάγοντες, οίον από δένδρων καρπόν καταδρέψαντες, ως είς άρουραν την μήτραν αόρατα υπό σμικρότητος και αδιάπλαστα ζώα (σπερματοζωάρια) κατασπείραντες και πάλιν διακρίναντες μεγάλα εντός εκθρέψωνται και μετά τούτο είς φώς αγαγόντες ζώων αποτελέσωσι γένεσιν»

The archeologists since they had no clues from appliances, explicit descriptions from reports or imprintings on pictures of the time, it is reasonable that they hush since they do not have the knowledge of a natural scientist, a biologist or a currency engraver, in order to get to know the difficulties in the treatment 1:1 of the cast of brilliant - as it appears in multiples enlargement – currencies, and so they consider that just with the art and the contribution of many not free s it is easy to engrave casts as those that made the artistic currencies that are presented already since 5th century bc.

Paul Kriaras
Athens - Greece
Researcher – journalist
Member of H.N.S (Hellenic Numismatic Society)
www.at.idx.gr

 

Article by Svetlana Lozovenko
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