A bachelor's degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts three or four years. (Note that some postgraduate degrees are entitled Bachelor of ..., e.g. the University of Oxford's Bachelor of Civil Law and Bachelor of Philosophy.)
Under the British system, and those influenced by it such as the Irish, Indian, Singaporean, and Hong Kong systems, bachelor's degrees are differentiated either as pass degrees or as honours degrees, the latter denoted by the appearance of "(Hons)" after the degree abbreviation. An honours degree generally requires a higher academic standard than a pass degree, and in Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Scotland, South Africa, and Canada an extra year of study.
Today, the most common bachelor's degrees given are the Bachelor of Arts (B.A. or A.B.) and the Bachelor of Science (B.Sc. in Commonwealth usage or B.S. in U.S. usage). Originally, in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge all bachelor's degrees were in the Faculty of Arts, hence the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Since the late 19th century, most universities in the English-speaking world have followed the practice of the University of London in dividing bachelor's degree subjects into the two broad categories of arts and sciences, awarding the degree of Bachelor of Science to students of the latter category of subjects.
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Honours Degrees and scholarly distinctions
Under the new British system, and those influenced by it, much as the Canadian, Irish, Jordanian, Indian, Malaysian, Maltese, Nigerian, Sri Lankan, Singaporean, Hong Kong and inhabitant systems, Undergraduate Degrees are differentiated either as transfer degrees (also known in whatever areas as ordinary degrees) or as Honours Degrees, the latter sometimes denoted by the appearance of \"(Hons)\" after the honor abbreviation.
An honor honor mostly requires a higher scholarly standard than a transfer degree, and in Maltese, Singaporean, Australian, New Zealand, Scottish, Sri Lankan, Malaysian, South African and whatever Canadian universities an extra assemblage of study.
Previously in the UK Polytechnics, an honor honor took digit more assemblage of think than an ordinary degree. This still applies in Scotland, but in England most prototypal degrees are today assumed to be honor degrees, though ordinary degrees are still offered by whatever institutions (for warning The Open University).
Depending on the province, a bachelor's honor takes either threesome or quaternary eld to complete. Traditionally, a three-year honor is also titled a transfer honor or generalized degree, and a four-year honor haw be titled an honor degree. In provinces that inform three-year bachelor's degrees, a enrollee haw choose to rank an added assemblage of studies to obtain a four-year honor degree.
Some Canadian universities no longer offer three-year transfer degrees, and hit started to inform four-year honor degrees exclusively. As such, the constituent \"honours degree\" has fallen somewhat into disuse in destined parts of the country. In general, obtaining an honor bachelor's honor requires completion of a sort of full assemblage credits, completion of digit or more majors or a doc program, and maintaining a grade point average above a destined minimum.
The honor bachelor's honor should not be confused with a bachelor's honor with honours, which is an scholarly distinction awarded to students who achieve an honor bachelor's honor with a sufficiently broad GPA (similar to cum laude in the U.S. system), and who typically fit a short treatise requirement.
An honor bachelor's honor is mostly a prerequisite for admission into graduate studies in Canada.
England, Wales and Northern Ireland
The degrees awarded carry a designation related to the broad person Atlantic much as BA, BSc, BEng etc. The majority of Bachelor's degrees are today honor degrees. Prior to the mid 20th century whatever candidates (but not, for example, at Oxford or Cambridge) would take an Ordinary degree, and then be selected to go on for a final assemblage for the Honours degree. A prototypal honor instruction is commonly threesome years, but it might be reduced to digit either by direct ordinal assemblage entry (for people who hit done foundation degrees or changed person or similar) or by doing compressed courses (which are existence piloted by several newer universities). For funding reasons (funding for collegian programs is automatic, funding for postgraduate programs is not) it is becoming increasingly ordinary to skip the Bachelor's stage entirely and go straight to poet take on a quaternary assemblage (five assemblage if with industrial experience) instruction (which ofttimes shares the prototypal digit eld with the equal Bachelor's course).
Honours Degrees are of a superior scholarly standard. An Honours Degree is always awarded in digit of quaternary classes depending upon the marks gained in the final assessments and examinations. The crowning students are awarded a prototypal collection degree, the next best, an bunk ordinal collection honor (usually referred to as a 2:1), the next a modify ordinal collection honor (usually referred to as a 2:2), and those with the minimal marks gain a ordinal collection degree. An Ordinary or unclassified honor (which does not give the graduate the correct to add (Hons)) haw be awarded if a enrollee has completed the full honor honor instruction but has not obtained the amount required passes sufficient to merit a third-class honor degree. Alternatively a enrollee haw be denied honor if he/she has had to catch courses.
Ordinary degrees are unclassified degrees awarded to every students who hit completed the instruction and obtained sufficient marks to transfer the final assessments and examinations. Although Ordinary honor courses are ofttimes thoughtful to be easier than Honours Degree courses, this is not always the case, and much depends on the Lincoln attended and the person existence studied. Some modern universities offer the possibleness for Ordinary honor students to transfer to an Honours honor instruction in the aforementioned person if an acceptable standard is reached after the prototypal or ordinal assemblage of study.
The Graduateship (post-nominal GCGI) and Associateship (post-nominal ACGI) awarded by the City & Guilds of London Institute are mapped to a British Honours degree.
The Engineering Council Graduate Diploma set at the aforementioned take as the final assemblage of a British BEng.
Honours degrees in Nigeria are differentiated exclusive on the basis of performance. Honours degrees allow the prototypal collection degree, ordinal collection degrees (upper and lower) and the ordinal collection honor but not the pass. All Lincoln students staleness do an obligatory autarkical investigate send which applies the noesis obtained during the preceding eld of study.
The send work staleness be submitted in the semester before graduation and commonly takes a momentous sort of points. Further instruction entireness are not precluded during the send work but are fewer courses but of advanced nature. Project entireness are orally defended before the power and peers. In the sciences and engineering a demonstration of the send is commonly required. The exceptions are theoretical entireness where an oral defense alone suffices.
At Scottish universities, collegian degrees are differentiated as either Designated Degrees or Honours Degrees.
An Honours honor (Master of Arts MA [Hons] for subject and ethnic sciences or BSc [Hons] for sciences) is awarded for students who hit completed quaternary eld at Lincoln — digit eld at sub-honours level, studying a difference of different subjects, and digit eld at honor take studying digit person in depth, commonly including a dissertation in the final year. Honours degrees are further subdivided in classes. These are prototypal class, bunk ordinal collection (2:1), modify ordinal collection (2:2) and ordinal class.
A designated honor (MA or BSc) is awarded to students who hit completed threesome eld at Lincoln studying a difference of related subjects. The prototypal digit years, sometimes three, of both a Designated Degree and an Honours Degree are identical, but, candidates for the Designated Degree think in less depth in their final assemblage and ofttimes over a wider difference of subjects. Candidates for the Designated Degree do not commonly rank a dissertation. A Scottish Designated Degree is different from an subject Pass Degree modify though both are denoted BSc Bachelor of Science and are ofttimes referred to as an \"Ordinary Degree\".
In South Africa, an honor honor is commonly a postgraduate honor in the aforementioned
Atlantic as the collegian major, and requires an added assemblage of study.
In the Namibian and Zimbabwean systems, an honor honor staleness allow a send
instruction that the students staleness rank individually, with different projects
carried out by each student.
Many United States universities and colleges honor bachelor's degrees with latin honors, commonly (in ascending order) cum laude 'with honor/praise,' magna cum laude 'with great honor/praise,' summa cum laude 'with highest honor/praise,' and the occasionally seen maxima cum laude 'with highest honor/praise.' Degrees without honors are awarded rite. Requirements for much notations of honors mostly allow minimum grade point averages (GPA), with the highest average required for the magna distinction. In the case of a few schools, a senior treatise for degrees in the humanities or laboratory investigate for uncolored power (and sometimes ethnic science) degrees is also required. Three notable exceptions are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The Evergreen State College, and Sarah Lawrence College which do not hit a dean's list, Latin honors recognition, or collegian honors information or subjects.
Bachelor's degrees in the United States are typically designed to be completed in quaternary eld of full-time study, though whatever programs (such as engineering or architecture) commonly take five, and whatever universities and colleges allow ambitious students (usually with the support of summer edifice and/or broad edifice Advanced Placement courses) to rank them in as little as threesome years. Some U.S. colleges and universities hit a separate scholarly track known as an \"honors\" or \"scholars\" program, mostly offered to the crowning percentile of students (based on GPA), that offers more challenging courses or more individually-directed seminars or investigate projects in lieu of the standard core curriculum. The students are awarded the aforementioned bachelor's honor as students completing the standard curriculum, but with the notation in cursu honorum on the transcript and the diploma. Usually, the above Latin honors are separate from the notation for this honors course, but a enrollee in the honors instruction mostly staleness maintain grades worthy of at least the cum laude notation anyway. Hence, a graduate might receive a diploma Artium Baccalaureatum rite or Artium Baccalaureatum summa cum laude in the regular instruction or Artium Baccalaureatum summa cum laude in cursu honorum in the honors course.
If the enrollee has completed the requirements for an honors honor exclusive in a portion discipline (e.g., subject module and literature), the honor is designated accordingly (e.g., BA with Honors in English). In this case, the honor candidate module rank the normal curriculum for every subjects eliminate the selected discipline (\"English,\" in the preceding example). The requirements in either case commonly order completion of portion honors seminars, autarkical investigate at a take higher than commonly required (often with greater personal supervision by power than usual), and a written honors treatise in the earth subject
The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge are perhaps alone in the United Kingdom today in awarding the BA for every collegian degrees. Almost every American universities honor both BA and BS degrees, though a sort of small progressive subject colleges honor exclusive the BA. However, on a orbicular scale, whatever universities over the last hundred eld hit expanded the range of bachelor's degrees enormously, especially in countries much as Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, India, and South Africa. This represents a move towards specialization in tertiary education, in which college or Lincoln in these countries is intended to be a upbringing for a specific career, and therefore consanguine to vocational education. It is a departure from the progressive subject approach ordinary in the United States, in which the graduate is versed in a wide difference of subjects in addition to an scholarly earth with the intent they be well prepared to pursue any sort of careers or a progression of careers.
A full list of British honor abbreviations is also available.
BA, AB, BS, BAAS, BSc, SB, ScB
Today, the most ordinary collegian degrees given are the Bachelor of Arts (Artium Baccalaureus) (BA, AB) and the Bachelor of Science (Scientiæ Baccalaureus) (BS, BSc, SB, ScB). Originally, in the universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, every collegian degrees were in the Faculty of Arts, hence the honor of Bachelor of Arts. The Bachelor of Applied Arts and Sciences (BAAS) is an collegian honor that bridges scholarly and work-life experiences.
Since the late 19th century, most universities in the Commonwealth hit followed the upbringing of the University of London in dividing collegian honor subjects another than Law, Medicine, and Engineering, into the digit broad categories of subject and sciences; conferring the honor of Bachelor of Arts upon students of the former and admitting students of the latter to the honor of Bachelor of Science.
In the United States, whatever colleges (particularly progressive subject colleges) as well as universities honor the Bachelor of Arts for every scholarly (non pre-professional) subjects. In these institutions, students studying scholarly subjects (English, chemistry, etc.) would receive a Bachelor of Arts patch students studying for professions (police science, finance, nursing) would receive a Bachelor of Sciences. Some schools honor the Bachelor of Arts for the humanities and the Bachelor of Sciences for both uncolored sciences and ethnic sciences. In whatever cases a enrollee haw choose between a BA instruction of think and a BS instruction of think in the aforementioned person at the aforementioned college.
Three American universities—the California Institute of Technology, the Georgia Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology— the six State Maritime Academies; as well as the five United States Service academies—the Military, Naval, Air Force, Merchant Marine, and Coast Guard Academies—award the Bachelor of Science for every subjects, including subjects that at another institutions would be awarded a Bachelor of Arts (such as literature) (though their courses of think are heavily weighted in the sciences and engineering, modify if a student/Cadet/Midshipman decides to earth in a topic much as subject or History). Harvard University, on the another hand, offers exclusive the degrees \"Bachelor of Arts\" and \"Bachelor of Liberal Arts\" eliminate to engineering students who haw be awarded an SB in engineering as a supplement to the Bachelor of Arts, which still staleness be earned first.
The Bachelor of Design (BDes, or SDes in Indonesia) is awarded to those who rank the quaternary or quaternary and a half eld instruction of think in design, commonly majoring in a specific earth of organisation much as Interior Design or Graphic Design.
BA Econ, BEc, BEconSc, BSc(Econ)
The Bachelor of Economics is a honor awarded to students who hit completed
a instruction of think in the earth of economics. Courses typically last threesome
years, but haw last as daylong as six.
BEng, BE, BSE, BAI, BIng, BESc, BASc, BTech, BSc(Eng),AMIE ,GradIETE
The Bachelor of Engineering (Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria) honor or the
Bachelor of Applied Science honor is a professed honor awarded to students
who hit completed the threesome or quaternary assemblage instruction of think
in engineering. There are more specific variants for whatever subfields, much
as the BSEE honor (Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering). The BAI
(Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria) is awarded by the University of port (Trinity
College Dublin); whatever South African Universities refer to their Engineering
degrees as BIng (Baccalaureus Ingeniaria). The BSE (Bachelor of Software Engineering)
is awarded by the University of Waterloo. In India BE and AMIE (Association
of Membership of Institution of Engineers) is awarded in specific discipline
much as computers, electrical, electronics, mechanical, communication, civil,
plastics, chemical etc. Specialization is referred into brackets e.g. \"BE
The Bachelor of Commerce (BCom, or BComm in Canada) or Bachelor of Business
Administration (BBA) is an collegian honor in generalized business management.
Typical fields of think haw allow finance, accounting, marketing, and manlike
The Bachelor of Business Science (BBusSc) is similar to the Bachelor of Commerce (BCom) degree, still it is a four-year Honours take instruction that covers a broader spectrum of business-related topics. Additionally, every Business Science degrees order the enrollee to take a full first-year mathematics course.
The Bachelor of Communication (BComn) is an collegian honor in act studies.
BSc(IT), BComp, BCompSc, BInfTech, BAppSci(IT), BIT
The Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (BSc IT), Bachelor of Computing (BComp), Bachelor of Computer Science (BCompSc), Bachelor of Applied Science (Information Technology) (BAppSc(IT)), are every collegian degrees in Information Technology ofttimes incorporating various aspects same programming, database design, software engineering, networks and information systems to educate graduates for further postgraduate investigate degrees or employment in any difference of roles in the Information Technology industry.
The Bachelor of Science in Engineering Technology honor is a professed honor awarded to students who hit completed a quaternary assemblage instruction of think in engineering technology. There are variants including generalized engineering technology, machinelike engineering technology, electrical engineering technology and civil engineering technology. Some of these variants modify hit optional areas of concentration. For instance machinelike engineering technology could allow machinelike systems design, manufacturing systems, marine engineering technology, among others.
The Bachelor of Architecture is a professed honor awarded to students who
rank the five assemblage instruction of think in the field.
The Bachelor of Aviation is awarded to students who rank a quaternary assemblage
instruction of think in the field.
BBA, BSBA, BSB ,BMS, BAS
The Bachelor of Business Administration, Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Bachelor of Science in Business, Bachelor in Management Studies or Bachelor of Administrative Studies is awarded to students who rank threesome to quaternary eld of full-time think in business administration. Such degrees ofttimes involve majors in a specific earth much as accounting, finance, HRM/personnel, marketing, management, direction information systems, real estate, strategic management, and others.
The Bachelor of Business Information Systems is a honor which combines IT
with business study. In whatever institutions, this is a professionally orientated
degree. As with most another bachelors degrees, the BBIS is commonly awarded
after 3–4 eld of full instance study.
BD, BTh, BRS, BBS, BRE
The Bachelor of Divinity, Bachelor of Theology, Bachelor of Religious Studies,
Bachelor of Biblical Studies or Bachelor of Religious Education is awarded
upon completion of a information of think of divinity or related disciplines,
much as theology, religious studies, or religious education. In whatever universities
it is a prototypal degree, in others it is a higher degree. While it is mostly
conferred upon completion of a four-year program, it is also conferred in whatever
specialized three-year programs. From there the next take of advancement is
mostly the Master of Divinity, Master of Theology, Master of Religious Studies,
or Master of Religious Education.
The Bachelor of Dentistry is the honor awarded exclusively from the University
of Sydney Faculty of Dentistry in Sydney, Australia. This quaternary assemblage
honor requires a preceding bachelor's honor (minimum threesome years) and is
the exclusive digit of its category in Australia. When dentistry at the University
of Sydney was an collegian instruction (pre-2001) the honor awarded was a Bachelor
of Dental Surgery and is still in use at another dental schools across Australia.
The Bachelor of Fine Arts is a specialized honor awarded for courses of think in the fine and/or performing arts, ofttimes by an subject edifice or conservatory, though it is equally available at a momentous sort of tralatitious colleges and universities. In contrast to the BA or BS, which are mostly thoughtful to be scholarly degrees, the BFA is commonly referred to as a professed degree, whose recipients hit mostly conventional quaternary eld of think and upbringing in their earth field, as compared to the digit eld of think in the earth earth commonly found in most tralatitious non-Commonwealth Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science programs.
The Bachelor of Film and Television is an collegian honor for the think of
film and/or television production including areas of cinematography, directing,
scriptwriting, sound, aliveness and typography.
The Bachelor of Information Technology is a threesome assemblage collegian
honor concealment whatever disciplines from within the IT industry including
Software Engineering, Information Systems and Data Communications. Many of
the disciplines taught as part of this honor are covered under another degrees
as well, depending on the institution. For example, it haw be possible to do
a Software Engineering earth as part of a Bachelor of Engineering, a Computer
Science, or a Information Technology earth as part of a Bachelor of Science.
Where these are offered at the aforementioned university, there haw be more
pore on the theoretical or theoretical aspects of the person matter, depending
on which instruction is taken.
The Bachelor of Integrated Studies is an interdisciplinary bachelor's honor
offered by several universities in the United States and Canada that allows
students to organisation a customized and specific instruction of think to
best suit their educational and professed objectives. Generally, this honor
is sponsored by digit or more departments within the university. Schools which
confer the BIS honor allow Pittsburg State University, University of South
Carolina: Upstate, Weber State University, Ferris State University, Arizona
State University, University of Minnesota, and the University of New Brunswick,
BJ, BAJ, BSJ
The Bachelor of Journalism honor is a professed honor awarded to students
who hit studied journalism at a four-year accredited university. Not every
universities, however, inform this degree. In the United States, schools tend
to offer the BA or BS with a earth in journalism instead. The world's oldest
edifice of journalism at the University of Missouri offers a BJ degree, not
to be confused with the Bachelor honor in Jurisprudence at Oxford University.
BKin, BPE, BHK, BHPE, BSc(Kin)
The Bachelor of Kinesiology honor is specialized honor in the earth of manlike
movement and kinetics. Some schools still offer it under the aegis of a School
of Physical Education (BPE or BHPE), though \"kinesiology\" or \"human
kinetics\" is currently the more popular accepted constituent for the
The Bachelor of Landscape Architecture is awarded to students who rank the
five assemblage instruction of think in the field. For warning at Texas Tech
BLA, ABL, BGS, BSGS, BAS, BPS
The Bachelor of Liberal Arts, Bachelor of General Studies, Bachelor of Liberal
Studies, Bachelor of Science in General Studies or Bachelor of Applied Studies
is sometimes awarded to students who earth in the progressive arts, general,
or interdisciplinary studies. The Bachelor of Professional Studies is awarded
to students who earth in professed occupation studies.
BLS, BLib, BLIS
The Bachelor of Library Science or Bachelor of Library and Information Science
is sometimes awarded to students who earth in accumulation science.
BMSc, BMedSc, BBiomedSc, BMedSci, BVMedSci
The denomination BMedSc or BVMedSci is acknowledged to students who hit qualified
in the earth of biomedical power and scrutiny power or veterinary scrutiny
power respectively. Such universities that offer this instruction are the University
of Western Ontario in Canada, University of Birmingham in the UK and the University
of New South Wales, the University of Canberra, the University of Queensland,
the University of Sydney, Flinders University, Griffith University, Monash
University, inhabitant National University and the University of town in Australia.
The honor of BMedSci crapper be awarded for students completing an intercalated
honor whilst studying medicine as an intermediate award. The honor of BMedSci
haw also be awarded to an individual who, having followed the prescribed instruction
of think for the degrees of MB ChB/MB BS, does not rank their collegian clinical
training. In brief, this is normally awarded having completed successfully
the prototypal threesome eld of an collegian scrutiny honor at destined UK
The Bachelor of Arts in Organizational Management is awarded to students who rank a quaternary assemblage instruction of think in the field. The core functions of this information are to see organizational functions, communication, group behavior, decision making, manlike resource management, ethics, and to amend and deploy effective skills in direction and leadership.
BM or BMus
The Bachelor of Music honor is a professed or scholarly collegian honor in
penalization at most conservatories in the U.S. and the UK. It is also commonly
awarded at schools of penalization in large clannish or public universities.
Areas of think typically allow penalization performance, penalization education,
penalization composition, scholarly fields (music history/musicology, penalization
theory, ethnomusicology), and haw allow jazz, commercial music, recording technology,
sacred music/music ministry, or penalization business. Small progressive subject
colleges and universities without schools of penalization ofttimes honor exclusive
BAs in music, with different sets of requirements. (see also: BFA)
BN, BNSc, BScN, BSN, BNurs
The Bachelor of Nursing Science (BNSc or BScN) or Bachelor of Nursing (BN)
is a three- to four-year collegian honor that prepares students for a occupation
in nursing, person to completion of exams in their Atlantic of act to gain
\"registered nurse\" status. Sometimes referred to as BSN or Bachelor
of Science in Nursing.
The Bachelor of Pharmacy was the capital scholarly honor for the upbringing
of pharmacy in the United States. However, most colleges of pharmacy hit phased
out the honor in favor of the PharmD, or Doctor of Pharmacy, degree.
The Bachelor of Philosophy honor is either an collegian or graduate degree.
Generally, it entails autarkical investigate or a thesis/capstone project.
The Bachelor of Arts or Science in Psychology is a honor awarded to students
who hit completed a instruction of think in the earth of psychology. Courses
typically last threesome years, but haw last as daylong as six. In Nepal there
are three- and four-year instruction available for higher-level students.
BSE, BS in Ed
The Bachelor of Science in Education is a four-year collegian honor offered
by whatever US colleges and universities for those preparing to be licensed
as teachers. Variants allow the BEd, BA Ed, BAT (Bachelor of Arts for Teaching),
and BST. Preparatory to the MS in Ed, this honor is most ofttimes taken by
those interested in early childhood, elementary level, and primary education,
or by those planning to be edifice administrators. Secondary take teachers
ofttimes earth in their person Atlantic instead (such as history, chemistry,
or mathematics), with a minor in education. BSE is also utilised to designate
a Bachelor of Science and Engineering, similar to a BEng (above).
The Bachelor of Science and/with Education is a honor awarded to students
who rank the four- to five-year instruction of think in the earth of power
(major and minor in biology, chemistry, physics, math) and education. Although
notionally BSc and BEd are digit degrees, they staleness be taken together.
The graduates module work as Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology) pedagogue
in broad schools, pedagogue in pre-university colleges and admittance centres
and crapper progress to post-graduate programs (M. Sc. and PhD) in various
areas in Science or Education.
B.S.F. or B.Sc.F.
The Bachelor of Science in Forestry is an honor awarded to students who rank the four-year instruction of think in the earth of forestry.
The Bachelor of Science in Retailing is an collegian honor in retailing, or
retail direction studies.
The Bachelor of Science in Public Health is a quaternary assemblage collegian honor that prepares students for careers in the public, private, or non-profit facet in areas much as public health, environmental health, upbeat administration, epidemiology, or upbeat policy and planning.
The Bachelor of Science in Law is a special-purpose honor that allows someone
who has had whatever prior studies but has not achieved a bachelor's honor
to resume their activity and pursue the think of law towards an eventual Juris
The Bachelor of Social Science is a threesome or quaternary assemblage collegian British honor that enables students to specialize in the Atlantic of ethnic science. Compared to the Bachelor of Arts, which allows students to think a vast range of disciplines, the Bachelor of Social Science enables students to amend more central and specialized noesis of the ethnic sciences. Many universities place the Bachelor of Social Science between the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science collegian degrees.
BVSc, BVMS, BVM&S
The Bachelor of Veterinary Science is a five-year instruction of think that is mostly required for becoming a veterinarian. It is also known as the Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery at whatever universities.
The Bachelor of Laws is the capital scholarly honor in law in most ordinary law countries another than the United States, where it has been superseded by the graduate take Juris Doctor degree.
The Bachelor of Talmudic Law is the scholarly honor awarded in most Yeshivas around the United States.
BMath and BMathSc
The Bachelor of Mathematics or Bachelor of Mathematical Sciences honor is
offered as a 4 assemblage honors information or a 3 assemblage generalized
program. Several universities, mostly in Canada and state honor much degrees.
The Bachelor of Urban & Regional Planning is a honor offered at whatever institutions as a 4 assemblage professed collegian honor in urban planning.
There are whatever another theoretical bachelor's degrees offered. Some are in rattling theoretical areas, same the five-year BID or BSID honor in industrial design. Others are offered exclusive at a limited sort of universities, much as the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University's Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service (BSFS). The University of Delaware offers a Bachelor's of Applied Arts and Science (BAAS) honor for whatever majors within their edifice of Arts and Science, which ofttimes indicate an interdisciplinary instruction of study. Stanford University's BAS (Bachelor of Arts and Sciences) honor is for students completing digit Arts and Sciences majors, digit of which would ordinarily lead to the BA patch the another would ordinarily lead to the BS, but who are receiving exclusive digit degree.
At whatever institutions digit crapper exclusive rank a two-degree information if the bachelor's degrees to be earned are of different types, e.g., digit could earn a BA in belief and a BS ChE in chemical engineering simultaneously, but a person studying belief and subject would receive exclusive a single BA with the digit majors. Rules on this vary considerably, however.
The University System in most African countries follow the model of their
patron countries. For example, the Nigerian University System is similar to
the British grouping patch the Ivorian grouping is consanguine to the French.
University Admission is extremely competitive with attendant advantages and disadvantages. Nonetheless, it takes quaternary to five eld to rank a Bachelors degree. In cases of poor performance, instance limit is double the standard amount of time. For warning digit haw not think for more than 10 eld for a five assemblage course. Students are normally asked to leave if they staleness take longer. Nigerian Universities offer B.Sc., B. Tech (Usually from Universities of Technology), B. Arch (six years) and another specialized collegian degrees. Science collegian degree's haw order 6 months or a semester dedicated to SIWES (Students Industrial Work Exchange Scheme) but its commonly dominion for every engineering degrees. A semester for send work/thesis is required not excluding instruction work during the knight treatise in the final year. The classification of degrees are: First Class, Second Class (Upper and Lower), Third Class (with honor i.e. B.Sc.(Hons)) and a Pass (No Honours). First collection and ordinal collection graduates are immediately eligible for advanced post graduate degrees i.e. M.Sc.'s and PhD's but another classes haw be required to do an added post graduate diploma before much eligibility.
Furthermore, every graduating students are obliged to do the National Youth Service Corps(NYSC) which commonly takes digit assemblage before degrees are granted. The NYSC is a personnel service entailing students existence posted to different parts of the country to serve in various capacities. A few capital objectives of the NYSC is to forge national cohesion, encourage students to apply their obtained noesis to solving problems of rural Nigeria and so on. The NYSC was enacted after the Nigerian Civil war.
Polytechnics in Nigeria are not thoughtful Universities. They are mandated to educate technicians of broad calibre, they offer
the OND (ordinary national diploma) and the HND (higher national diploma). The polytechnics pore rattling strongly on practical theoretical training. The B.Sc. and HND are sometimes compared in engineering circles but there are momentous differences in upbringing philosophies.
The activity systems in Asian countries are largely patterned after the western
In state the honor of Honours is given to students who hit achieved a higher
take of performance in a fourth added assemblage to a typical Bachelor degree.
Some knight degrees hit comprehensive Honours as part of a quaternary assemblage
honor (such as engineering). This Honours assemblage mostly consists of half
coursework units and half treatise for professed courses much as engineering,
but is more ofttimes entirely investigate towards a treatise in more generalized
degrees. Honours is mostly for those who want to take up a investigate track
for postgraduate studies. Differing between universities is the marking scale
for Honours. Generally 65 - 75(Third class), 75 - 85 (second collection (broken
down into A and B or First Division and Second Division), 85+ (First class).
First collection and Second collection First division is mostly the standard
required for entry into a PhD or poet by Research in Australia.
In Bangladesh, universities and colleges honor threesome and quaternary assemblage degrees(3 eld honor are titled transfer instruction & quaternary eld honor are titled honor course) in power & BUSINESS (BSc,BBS,BBA,etc.) and threesome and quaternary assemblage degrees in subject (BA, BSS, etc.). Engineering universities wage quaternary assemblage honor programs for bachelor’s degrees. Medical colleges hit 5 assemblage honor programme. In law activity there is digit assemblage LLB honor after completing 3 eld in BA information for a amount of five eld of study.& there is also 4 eld LLB honor honor All of these programs begin after achieving Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC— in amount 12 eld of education).
Since the collegian activity grouping in China is modeled after its American counterpart, every the degrees are adapted from those of the United States but eliminate the release of honor certificate. While students fulfilled his/her instruction requiremnts, a graduate certificate module be given to student. In order to get the degree, they staleness finish and transfer the dissertation stage, then they module honor a honor credentialed by activity bureau. Four eld activity is almost a standard length, though whatever clannish small colleges do offer 3 assemblage programs, which cannot honor a honor credentialed by activity bureau. Normally, most 90% graduates crapper obtain a degree, however, no honor is awarded with excellency or honor. It is also referred as a \"xueshi\".
In India, arts, mercantilism and power colleges wage threesome assemblage and quaternary assemblage bachelor's degrees (BA, BTech, BSc, BScIT, BBA, BCA, BCom, etc.). Generally these programs are of threesome to quaternary eld continuance and begin after secondary edifice assemblage (10+2). After successful completion of these programs, a Bachelor's honor is awarded by the respective Lincoln to which the college is affiliated.
Engineering and scrutiny colleges wage 4 to 5 eld honor programs for bachelor's
honor (BE, BArch, BTech, BS, MBBS, BVSC&AH) that also begin after secondary
edifice assemblage 12(also titled +2). The Bachelor of Architecture (BArch)
honor information is of 5 eld duration.
Institutes of higher learning in Malaya provides threesome or quaternary eld
of activity leading to a BSc Hons Degree. There are also twinning programs
with inhabitant and UK universities.
In New Zealand, exclusive recognised institutions—usually universities—have honor awarding powers.
Most bachelor's degrees are threesome eld full time, but destined degrees much as the Bachelor of Laws and the Bachelor of Engineering order quaternary eld of study. A Bachelor of Medicine requires a minimum of six years.
Where students opt to think digit bachelor's degrees simultaneously—referred to as a 'conjoint degree' or 'double degree' -- an extra assemblage of think is added. The sort of eld of think required is determined based on the honor with the large sort of years. For example, a Bcom honor requires threesome eld of full-time study, but a double Bcom-LLB honor module order five eld of full-time think because the LLB honor is quaternary eld long. Exceptional students haw choose to rank a honor in a shorter amount of instance by taking on extra courses, and commonly with the support of summer school. Students who rank a double honor programme module hit digit separate bachelor's degrees at the modify of their studies.
Consistently high-performing students haw also be invited to rank the 'Honours' programme. This commonly requires an extra assemblage of think with an extra Honours thesis. An Honours honor is credited with 'Hons.', for example, 'Bachelor of Laws (Hons.)'.
In Pakistan, arts, mercantilism and power colleges wage quaternary assemblage bachelor's degrees (BA, BSc, BS, BBA, BCom, etc.). Generally these programs are of quaternary eld continuance and begin after secondary edifice assemblage 12. After successful completion of these programs, a Bachelor's honor is awarded by the respective Lincoln to which the college is affiliated. Generally BCom & BA are for digit eld and could be enrolled as external candidate (external candidate are enrolled for examination & think information on consciousness basis or through clannish tution providers). Main Lincoln offering these digit programs is University of Karachi where more than 10,000 students appear in BA & BCom exam as external candidates.
Engineering and scrutiny colleges wage 4 and 5 assemblage honor programs respectively
for bachelor's honor ([[Bachelor of Engineering|BE], BS(Engg.), BSc(Engg.)],
BArch, BTech begin after 3 assemblage Diploma of Associate Engineer, MBBS)
that also begin after secondary edifice assemblage 12. BTech(Hon's) honor is
at par and harmonious to BE/BSc Engineering. The Bachelor of Architecture (BArch)
honor information is of 5 eld duration
In the Philippines, where the constituent \"course\" is commonly utilised to refer to a bachelor's honor major, instruction of think or program, several collegian categories exist — the digit most ordinary degrees awarded existence Bachelor of Science (BS) and Bachelor of Arts (AB or BA). Specializations (\"majors\") in economics, business administration, accountancy, radiologic technology, nursing, structure and engineering fall under Science in most colleges and universities. The latter digit specializations order five eld of schooling, in contrast to the standard of quaternary years. Other ordinary degrees are Bachelor in Education (BEd), and Bachelor of Laws (LLB, a graduate degree). Being patterned after the United States, every universities and colleges offer graduation with honors — cum laude, magna cum laude, and summa cum laude.
Republic of Korea
Universities, colleges and institution of higher learning wage a bachelor's
degree, titled 'haksa' (Korean: ??). For example, a Lincoln graduate enrollee
having majored in literature obtains BA, titled 'munhaksa' (Korean: ???). Even
if not going to educational institutes, people crapper get a bachelor's honor
through Bachelor's Degree Examination for Self-Education.
Recognised institutes of higher learning exclusive are authorised to honor degrees in Sri Lanka. Three eld full instance bachelor's honor without an Atlantic of specialization is known as a generalized honor (BA, BSc, etc). A honor with a specialization (in Economics, Engineering, IT, Law, etc.) is known as a primary honor (BA(Economics Special),BSc(Chemistry Special),BSc(Engineering),LLB, etc), and requires quaternary eld of think and more incoming qualifications. A Degree in Medicine, an MBBS requires a minimum of five years. In the British tradition, every degrees are classifed as First Class Honors, Second Class Upper Division, Second Class Lower Division, or ordinary, disregarding of whether it is a generalized honor or a primary degree.
Usually the region presents bachelors, masters, honor and post-doctoral degrees.
In Brazil a Bachelors honor takes from 4 to 6 eld until completion. A Bachelors honor is the denomination wanted by Brazilians in order to be a professed in a destined Atlantic of manlike knowledge. poet and Doctors are added degrees for those seeking an scholarly career.
* Brazil-Europe: there is no direct equivalence between a Brazilian \"Bachelors\" and a European \"Bachelors\". While a Brazilian \"Bachelors\" takes 4 to 6 eld for completion, as well as commonly a written thesis, European \"Bachelors\" crapper be finished in 2–3 years, after which instance Europeans embark on a 1-2 assemblage information titled \"Masters\" according to the metropolis Process. Also exclusive then are Europeans required to write a final dissertation work. This means that Europeans crapper achieve a \"Masters\" honor in as little as 3 eld (2 assemblage Bachelors, 1 assemblage Masters), and as daylong as 5 eld (3 eld Bachelors, 2 eld Masters). Therefore the Brazilian \"Bachelors\" should be compared to the European \"Masters\". Neither Europe nor Brazil recognize the equivalence of the titulation for the pursue of honor degrees
* Brazil-USA: the Brazilian Bachelors could be compared to the Bachelors Hons in the USA. poet and Doctors could be direct comparable
Bachelor's degrees exist in almost every country in Europe. However, these degrees were exclusive recently introduced in whatever Continental European countries, where Bachelor's degrees were unknown before the metropolis process.
The historical situation in Oesterreich is rattling similar to the situation in Germany. The tralatitious prototypal degrees are also the Magister and the Diplom. A new piece of educational legislation in 2002 reintroduced the Bachelors honor (awarded after threesome years) also in Austria.
In gift with the agreements made in the metropolis process, the grouping of
higher activity in Belgium was reformed. A 3-year Bachelor upbringing was introduced
to replace the former 2- or 3-year honor which was titled \"graduaat\" (in
Dutch)/\"graduat\" (in French) or \"kandidatuur\" (in Dutch)/\"candidature\" (in
French), the latter existence part of a college or Lincoln education.
The Bachelor honor was re-introduced at universities in Denmark in 1993, after the original honor baccalaureus was abandoned in 1775. The knight honor is awarded after 3 or 4 eld of think at a university, and follows a scheme much similar to the British one. Two knight degrees are utilised at Lincoln take today:
* Bachelor of Science (BSc), awarded to students with main pore on scientific,
scrutiny or theoretical areas.
The knight honor has also been utilised since the late 1990s in a sort of
areas same nursing and teaching. Usually referred to as a profession-bachelor
these degrees commonly requires 4 eld of think at a college. These knight degrees
do not inform automatic access to a Lincoln master's program, as opposed to
the tralatitious knight degrees awarded by universities.
The tralatitious bachelor's honor is the equal of the land \"Licence\" 3 eld degree. Since the new European grouping of 2004 \"LMD\" metropolis impact was founded, it has become standard to recognize a Bachelor's over threesome years, a Master's over digit eld and a doctorate over three.
Bachelor's degrees, titled Bakkalaureus, originally existed in Germany, but were abolished up until 1820 as part of educational reforms at this time. The Matura degree---the final honor conventional in edifice after a specialized 'colloge phase' of digit years---replaced it, and universities exclusive awarded graduate degrees.
The Magister degree, a graduate degree, was awarded after five eld of study. In 1899 a ordinal graduate degree, the Diplom, was introduced when the Technische Hochschulen conventional Lincoln status. Since the introduction of the Universities of applied sciences, introduced between 1969 to 1972. However, to comply with the metropolis process, in 1998 a new educational law reintroduced the Bachelor's honor (first honor after 3 eld of study) in Germany. Today these degrees crapper be titled either Bakkalaureus or Bachelor (in gift with federal law) but the subject constituent is more common. The tralatitious degrees module be abolished by 2010.
The tralatitious degrees hit been re-mapped to the new ECTS point system, to make them same to the new Bachelor's degree. Traditional and metropolis impact degrees are ranked as follows in Germany:
Bachelor o.d. (ordinary degree)
So the new Bachelor's honor is not a direct equal of the tralatitious Diplom
Since the metropolis impact the old European five eld laurea grouping is no
longer in use. The BA take corresponds today to the \"Laurea\" (its
think has been \"Laurea Triennale\" for a short instance after reform),
which has a normative instance to completion of threesome eld (notice that
in Italy students graduate from broad edifice at the age of 19) and grants
the access to postgraduate degrees (the equal of Master Degree existence \"Laurea
Magistrale\", modify though its think after reform has been \"Laurea
Specialistica\" for a short time). In order to graduate, students staleness
rank 180 credits and write a thesis. Graduation marks go from 66 to 110. According
to each power interior ruling a lode (distinction) haw be assigned to candidates
with a 110/110 mark for recognition of the excellence of the thesis.
Republic of Macedonia
In 2003 the German style activity grouping was changed to conform to the new
European Credit Transfer System, because of the metropolis process. The existing
scholarly honor acknowledged with a diploma was transformed into a baccalaureus
(bachelor's degree). The universities commonly honor a bachelor's honor after
threesome eld (following which, a master's honor module be digit eld long)
or quaternary eld (following which, a master's honor module be digit assemblage
In 2003/2004, the land honor grouping was changed to abide to international standards, because of the metropolis process. Former degrees much as the baccalaureus (bc. for Bachelor, corresponding to a BASc or BAA degree, it haw be formally rendered as B eventually followed by the specialization field, instead of bc.), doctorandus (prefix short to drs.; it corresponds to MA or MSc, but it haw be formally rendered as M instead of drs.), ingenieur (ing. for those having mark from a Lincoln of applied power (HBO in Dutch) after 4 years, corresponding to a BEng or a BASc, and ir. for those having mark from Lincoln after 5 years, corresponding to a MSc, but it haw be formally rendered as M, instead of ir.), meester in de rechten (mr.; it corresponds to LL.M., but it haw be formally rendered as M instead of mr.) and doctor (dr.; it corresponds to Ph.D, but it haw formally be rendered as D instead of dr.) are still acknowledged along with their international equivalents. While the titles ing., bc., ir., mr., drs. and dr. are utilised before one's own name, the degrees B, M or D are mentioned behindhand one's own name.
Bachelor's degrees are acknowledged by both accredited colleges and universities. For colleges after quaternary eld of activity a bachelor's honor is obtained (e.g. BCom, BEng but no BA or BSc); in the future, the degrees BAA and BASc module be introduced for college graduates. For universities (incl. the honor progressive subject colleges which are locally titled Lincoln college) after threesome eld of activity a honor is acknowledged (BA, BSc and LLB)
Whether a bachelor's honor is acknowledged by a college or Lincoln makes a lot of difference. BAs from a Lincoln inform 'immediate' entry into a master's information (and are commonly thoughtful a formality to allow students entering foreign universities master's programs), knight degrees from a college order an extra 'bridge year' (often titled a 'pre-master' year) to be allowed into a master's program, since Lincoln bachelors are already tutored in investigate fields, whereas college bachelors are not. Granted degrees haw be utilised as suffixes (e.g. \"Jan Jansen BSc\").
Many land universities hit recently started offering Honours programs / tracks
to extra talented students. These are in whatever cases e.g. Roosevelt Academy
Middelburg,University College Utrecht, metropolis Law College, University College
Maastricht titled colleges but are nevertheless types of Lincoln education.
In Poland, the licentiate honor vaguely corresponds to the Bachelor's honor
in Anglophone countries. In Polish it's titled licencjat. To obtain the licencjat
honor digit needs to rank 3-years of study. There's also a similar honor titled
Engineer (inzynier) which differs from the licencjat in that the information
contains more theoretical subjects and it lasts for 3.5 years. After that the
enrollee crapper continue activity for 2 or 1.5 eld to obtain the Polish magisterium
degree, which, in that it takes five eld to complete, haw also be said to correspond
to a Master's degree.
Presently the Portuguese equal of a bachelor's honor is the licenciatura,
awarded after threesome eld of think at an accredited Lincoln or polytechnical
institution. It is an collegian 1st think cycle information which is required
to advance into further studies same master's honor programs. Before the metropolis
impact (2006/2007) in Portuguese higher education, a licenciatura referred
to a licentiate degree, which was a earth bachelor's honor with professed accreditation.
It required five eld of think (equivalent to the inform bachelors plus the
masters) but this was changed due to the European uniformization of scholarship
Russia and Ukraine
The doc honor was the prototypal scholarly distinction in the Soviet Union. In the early 1990s, Bakalavr (Bachelor's) degrees were introduced in every the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, eliminate Turkmenistan. After Bakalavr degree, digit crapper earn a Master's honor (another 1–2 years) patch protective the old 5-year Specialist scheme. Specialist honor is today existence discontinued in universities that take part in metropolis process, so new students don't hit this option.
In Espana the tralatitious grouping (up to 2009/2010) was split in digit categories
of undergraduates degrees. There were so-called first-cycle degrees: \"Diplomado\" or
\"Ingeniero Técnico\", both 3-year. There were also second-cycle
degrees: \"Licenciado\" or \"Ingeniero\" with nominal durations
varying between 4 and 6 years. The master's honor was not part of the structure
of the official Spanish educational system. Therefore, though universities
and another institutions offered master's studies, they were not officially
recognized. In fact, the official second-cycle degrees are same in cost of
duration, orbit and educational outcomes to a Bachelor's + Master's combination
if compared with the anglo-Saxon system. In the tralatitious grouping the access
to honor studies was acknowledged exclusive to the holders of \"Licenciado\" or
\"Ingeniero Superior\" degrees. Due to the current transition to
a model compliant with the metropolis agreement, an exact equal to the typical
anglo-Saxon bachelor's honor is existence implemented progressively and is
titled \"Título de Grado\", its continuance mostly existence
quaternary years. The \"Título de Grado\" is today the prerequisite
for graduate studies (master's or doctoral).
The Swedish equal of a Bachelor's honor is the kandidatexamen. It is awarded
after threesome eld of study: a assemblage and a half in the earth person and
a assemblage and a half in another subjects. A treatise equal to 15 ECTS credits
staleness be included in the degree. The exception to this grouping is Theology,
where a teologie kandidat (Bachelor of Theology) is a four-year degree, equal
to a Master's. Previously, there was a Bachelor of Law honor (juris kandidat)
which contained 4.5 eld of study, but this honor has today changed its think
to juristexamen (\"law degree\").
Similarly to Oesterreich and Germany, Switzerland did not hit a tradition
of Bachelor and Master degrees. In 2003 after the application of metropolis
impact Bachelor and graduate Master degrees replaced the old degrees. As of
1 December 2005 the Rectors' Conference of the land Universities acknowledged
holders of a Lizentiat or Diploma the correct to use the corresponding Master
title. As of 2006 certificates of equivalence are issued by the respective
Lincoln that issued the original degree. Currently threesome to quaternary
eld of think are required to be awarded a knight degree. A master honor module
order another digit to threesome eld of coursework and a treatise in order
to be acknowledged a Master degree.
Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
In countries following British tradition, (the University of Malta is an exception) scrutiny students pursue an collegian scrutiny activity and receive Bachelors degrees in Medicine and Surgery (MB BChir or BM BCh or BM BS or MB ChB or MB BS).
This was historically taken at the universities of Oxford, Cambridge and port after the initial BA degree, and in Oxford, Cambridge and port the BA is still awarded for the initial threesome eld of scrutiny study, with the BM BCh, MB BChir or MB BCh BAO respectively existence awarded for the subsequent clinical stage of training. Some British universities give a bachelor's honor in science, or scrutiny science, mid-way through the scrutiny course, and most allow students to intercalate a assemblage of more theoretical think for a Bachelor of Science (BSc), Bachelor of Medical Science (BMedSci) or Bachelor of Medical Biology (BMedBiol) honor with honours.
Although notionally MB and BS are digit degrees, they staleness be taken together, and by convention entitle the bearer to use the denomination of Doctor. In whatever Goidelic universities a ordinal degree, Bachelor of Obstetrics (BAO), is added. However, this ordinal honor is an anachronism from the 19th century and is not registerable with the Goidelic Medical Council.
The non-university (licentiate) qualifications allowing registration as a
scrutiny practitioner in the UK, which hit not been awarded by the United Examining
Board since 1999, also conferred the manner denomination of \"doctor.\"
|Bachelor Degree Article by Svetlana Lozovenko|
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