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Air Travel



In air travel, an airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft (an aeroplane/airplane) initially designed for the transport of paying passengers, and usually operated by an airline company (which owns or leases the aircraft). There may be variants developed for freight or (luxury) corporate use.

The definition of an airliner can vary from country to country, but typically, 20 or more passenger seats or an empty weight above 50,000 lb (22,680 kg) qualifies an aircraft as an airliner. Passenger aircraft with fewer than 20 passenger seats are called commuter aircraft or air taxis, depending on their size, and engine and seating configurations (the Beechcraft 1900, for example, has only 19 seats so that it will not qualify as an airliner and may be operated under less strict requirements in most countries). While piston engines were common on propliners like the Douglas DC-3 until the beginning of the jet age, nearly all modern airliners are powered by turbine engines, either turbofans or turboprops, since they operate efficiently at much higher altitudes.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Air Travel"

More about air travel:

Air travel is a form of travel using an airplane.

The comfort experienced when traveling by air depends on several factors starting with the airport, the choice of the airline and the travel class.

Travel collection on an airplane is usually separate into a two, three or quaternary collection model. US Domestic flights usually have digit classes: Economy Class and a Domestic First Class partitioned into cabins. International flights may have up to quaternary classes: Economy Class, Premium Economy, Business Class or Club Class and First Class.

The differences between premium economy and economy are quite significant, but the outlay is not greatly altered by purchase a Premium Economy ticket. The toll difference between an economy collection listing and a prototypal collection ticket, owever, are often extreme.

Most air travel starts and ends at a commercial airport. The typical procedure is check-in, abut control, airfield security baggage and traveller check before entering the gate, boarding, flying and pick-up of luggage and - limited to international flights - another abut control at the host country's border.

Air safety is a term encompassing the theory, investigation and categorization of flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through regulation, education and training. It can also be applied in the context of campaigns that inform the public as to the safety of air travel.

Commercial travel is the part of civil travel (both general travel and regular airline service) that involves operating bomb for hire. In most countries, a flight haw be operated for money only if it meets three criteria:

* the airman must stop a valid commercial pilot's license
* the bomb must stop a valid commercial registration
* the operator must stop a certificate or some other dominance for commercial operations

There are some exceptions — for example, a flight instructor is normally allowed to fly for money in a private bomb owned by the student — but the above requirements stop for most flights where money changes hands.

Typically, a commercial license or entrance requires higher standards than a private one. For example, a commercial airman haw have to demonstrate more maneuvers to a higher standard, and haw need to pass more regular medical examinations. A commercially-registered plane haw require more regular or more extensive maintenance.

It is the purpose of the flight, not the type of bomb or pilot, that determines whether the flight is commercial. For example, a two-seat Cessna 150 towing a banner for money would be a commercial flight, while a large jet flown by its owners for a private vacation would not be, modify if the pilots were commercially licensed and the jet were commercially registered.

Travel document

A movement writing is an identity writing issued by a polity or international treaty organization to facilitate the movement of individuals or diminutive groups of persons across international boundaries. Travel documents usually assure other governments that the griever or bearers haw return to the supply land and are issued in booklet modify to allow other governments to place visas as well as entry and opening stamps in them. One of the most common movement documents is a passport, which usually identifies the griever as a citizen or domestic of the supply country. Currently international movement documents are issued under the United Nations Convention Travel Document (UNCTD).

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe has also adopted the new Travel Document Security Programme which seeks to \"aim to comply fully with the minimum section standards for the handling and issuance of passports and other movement documents elaborated by ICAO\".

Laissez-Passer

A laissez-passer (from the French accept pass) is a movement writing issued by a domestic polity or an international treaty organization. When issued by a domestic polity a laissez-passer is often for one-way movement to the supply country. When issued by an international treaty organization it is often for employee movement on authorised business.

Some domestic governments issue laissez-passers to their possess nationals as emergency passports. Others issue them to people who are stateless, who are unable to obtain a passport from their possess polity or whose polity is not recognized by the supply country.

The United Nations (and the International Labour Organization) issue laissez-passer to officials and members of the UN, specialized agencies as well as to several international organizations. The laissez-passer are also issued to their families for authorised use. The U.N. laissez-passer is similar to a passport, and is widely recognized worldwide, although some countries will not accept a U.N. laissez-passer as sufficient to gain entry. A U.N. laissez-passer does not generally present diplomatic immunity, but haw present restricted immunities and privileges.

Historically, laissez-passer were commonly issued during wartime and at other periods, literally performing as a pass to allow movement to specific areas, discover of war zones or discover of the land for different officials, diplomatic agents, or representatives or citizens of third countries. In these contexts, laissez-passer would frequently include quite specific and restricted freedom of movement. The modify and supply authority would be more or less standardized depending on the circumstances.

An warning is when in the early 1950s, the Iraqi polity granted permission to its 120 thousand Jewish citizens to leave (Operation Ezra and Nehemiah) conditional on their renouncing their citizenship and leaving behind all their properties and assets. The movement writing that was issued was the laissez-passer since an Iraqi passport was no individual possible.

Other types of movement documents

* 1951 Convention movement documents are passport-like booklets issued by domestic governments to refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.
* 1954 Convention movement documents are similar documents issued to stateless persons under the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons.
* Alien's passports and certificates of identity are passport-like booklets issued by domestic governments to resident foreigners, other than those issued under the 1951 and 1954 conventions mentioned above. However, some governments issue certificates of identity to their possess nationals as emergency passports.
* island Compatriot Entry Permit, Home Return Permit, Exit & Entry Permit (Republic of China), Hong Kong Re-entry Permit, and Entry Permit of Mainland Residents to the island Area: the specific movement documents for Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau's citizens to mutually movement among these places due to their special mutual political status.

United States movement document

* Reentry Permit - A reentry accept allows a imperishable resident or conditional resident to apply for admission to the United States upon return from abroad during the permit's validity, without having to obtain a backward Resident Visa from a U.S. embassy or consulate.
* Refugee Travel Document - A refugee movement writing is issued to a person classified as a refugee or asylee, or to a imperishable resident who obtained such status as a result of being a refugee or asylee in the United States. Persons who hold such status must have a refugee movement writing to return to the United States after temporary movement abroad unless he or she is in possession of a valid Advance Parole Document. A refugee movement writing is issued by the CIS to implement Article 28 of the United Nations Convention of July 28, 1951.
* Advance Parole Document - An front parole writing is issued solely to clear the temporary parole of a person into the United States. The writing haw be accepted by a transportation company in lieu of a visa as an authorization for the holder to movement to the United States. An front parole writing is not issued to serve in place of some required passport. A imperishable resident whose movement is on the order of the United States government, other than an exclusion, deportation, removal or rescission order.

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Air Travel Article by Svetlana Lozovenko
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